Tag Archive irrigation

Drought, heat and dry soils in Germany – Climate Change intensifies Climate Crisis in Europe

Since 2018, new records have been set in terms of droughts, hottest months and driest years in centuries. The drought, heat and pests have been affecting the forests more and more since 2019 and unfortunately there is no improvement in sight in 2020 either. In Germany there was the most severe forest damage in over 200 years. Fires and storms have greater effects, because of the large amount of damaged wood and the tree damage, there are more problems with pests and fungal attack. Fine dust and environmental toxins from agriculture give many plants and animals the rest, especially insects such as bees suffer from environmental destruction. Air pollution, insecticides and pesticides are not only a danger for bees, they also endanger many other species, especially in areas of agriculture and livestock farms. Many of the typical trees and forests in forestry are monocultures and conifers such as douglas firs, spruces, pines, larches and firs – unfortunately they do not offer much nectar. Almost 80 percent of the conifers were felled because of damage. At just under 70 percent, the proportion of damaged wood in 2019 was more than three times as high as in 2010. As already described in the article on the Leipzig Oak Park of Diversity project, even strong tree species such as oaks are affected. Whether from pests, powdery mildew or drought stress, the plants suffer very badly from drought. Like many deciduous trees, oaks are deep-rooted, which draw water from the lower soil layers. What they don’t need themselves, they release closer to the surface. This makes oak a good soil regulator, for example through its pronounced symbioses with microorganisms and fungi. Oaks and other robust trees suffer from climate change, as do many people and animals. Damage to trees and forests is not only caused by fire, drought and heat waves, but also by fungus, pests, snow breaks, storms, floods and environmental toxins – as well as air and water pollution.

There are around four billion hectares of forest on earth. There are around 60,000 tree species worldwide and over 10,000 of them are threatened with extinction. According to an assessment by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), more than half of European tree species are endangered. Of the approximately 450 tree species, 265 do not occur on any other continent. More than 150 species are threatened, 66 species are at the highest level of endangerment and therefore close to extinction. In total, more than 28,000 animal and plant species are listed as endangered worldwide. These are data and statistics from recent years and some of the figures are already out of date, especially after the massive droughts and forest fires. It can be assumed that many more species are now threatened and in some regions even extinct.

According to climate research, long-term studies and weather experts, extreme drought is becoming normal in Europe in summer. In spring there is also a lack of water for healthy plant growth in many places around the world. The soils and forests can hold less water because the important reservoirs are not only dried out but damaged, i.e. the storage capacity is reduced and in some cases reduced for years. If middle and deeper soil layers harden, humus layers decay to dust or are destroyed, even a lot of rain does not help at first. It then takes years of moderate rain and much plant growth until these soil layers are loosened and watered again. Trees, hedges and other plants that can form complex, strong and deep roots need a few years to loosen middle and deep soil layers. Many plants lose branches, leaves and fruit during a drought or extreme drought. The proportion of trees with significant crown thinning increased to about 35 percent in 2019. If the trees and plants are generally weakened, they are more susceptible to parasites and other pests such as bark beetles, jewel beetles and processionary moth. In most cases, the damaged wood cannot remain in the forest. Much of this wood is not suitable for wood processing or high-quality products for the construction and furniture industries. Often the only option left is to process it into inferior wood products such as chipboard or wood pellets. A lot of damaged wood has been coming onto the market since 2018 and the price of wood has collapsed dramatically, the forecasts for 2021 and 2022 do not look any better. There is currently so much wood per year that would normally be enough for three years or more. The forest and wood industries are recording massive losses, and even cheap oak is already being sold as firewood. Forest companies and forest owners will have to work for a long time to compensate and repair the damage of recent years.

Future challenges, conflicts, wars and crises because of the worldwide water availability and water supply

The water reserves in the soil are becoming increasingly scarce, the soils are becoming drier overall. It has been relatively dry in Germany since 2015. The past two years exceeded the previous record drought of 1976. At that time it was exceptionally dry for five years and some tree species were replaced or supplemented by drought-resistant species such as hornbeam, service tree and field maple. But the adaptation of forests to the crisis and forest restructuring makes no sense if the groundwater will levels sink, lakes, rivers and water reservoirs partially dry up. Dry periods in winter are also a big problem, because when there is no snow there is much less water due to the melting of snow. The problem has been known for a long time, for example the lack of water supply due to the disappearance of glaciers and large areas of snow or ice. When mountains and oceans absorb more sun, the planet heats up even faster, especially at the North Pole. Fires and very hot times in northern areas of Russia also accelerate the thawing of the permafrost soil. Similar to the largest share of the greenhouse gas methane from agriculture or livestock farming, methane is released by the decomposition of the thawed biomass. As this happens in a very short time, the atmosphere, biosphere and weather systems cannot simply compensate for this, resulting in extreme climate changes and an increase in extreme weather conditions. For some years now, climate researchers have been able to prove the connection between extreme drought and severe flooding. In the meantime, there have been several fires, droughts and floods of the century, not only in Germany and Europe – but unfortunately also in Africa, America, Asia and India.

According to various surveys, around 80 percent are very concerned about the persistent drought. In France, Poland, the Czech Republic and other European countries, the spring was marked by low rainfall this year. French forests are very much endangered by the drought years and the hot summer of 2019. It was one of the deadliest heat waves in all of Europe, killing thousands of humans. The harmful effects of the droughts can be clearly seen on satellite images, many brown and gray fields in Europe and many large cities such as Berlin are affected. It affects especially regions in the north and east, in principle all federal states are affected. The cities in particular need more greenery, as they can heat up much more as the surrounding area. What you see more and more often are dry meadows, trees and bushes. The parks and water areas are therefore just as important as the greening of roofs and facades. The soil moisture, the total groundwater level and the groundwater levels in different regions of Germany are too low, at least in relation to normal amounts of precipitation and water levels. In April 2020, there was far too little rainfall in almost all federal states; the states of Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia were particularly affected. The soil moisture in the topsoil and total soil is simply too little for many plants. Due to the lack of water available to plants, drought stress or water stress quickly occurs. The photosynthesis of the plants and the growth decrease. If the usable soil water continues to fall, plant water stress occurs and the plants begin to dry up.

The drought monitor of the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research showed that the total soil in large parts of Germany was characterized by extreme to extraordinary drought in April and midsummer 2020. Similar to the drought monitor from the Environmental Research Center in Leipzig, there is also a research project in Switzerland called Drought CH or Trockenheit.ch, where information on the current situation is shown. The colleagues also summarize a lot of interesting data from the last few years. Such information is becoming more and more important, especially if conflicts over water resources increase in the future, whether in the energy industry for cooling or in agriculture for agricultural irrigation. It affects many European countries. If the water reserves become increasingly scarce, conflicts of use over water resources can be intensified considerably. The use of water, water resources and water management must become more economical or more sustainable so that there is not another water crisis in the next few years. Using ponds, water towers and underground water reservoirs to collect rainwater makes more and more sense, especially when you consider that around 80 percent of all irrigation throughout Germany is done with groundwater. An increasing demand for water from agriculture contrasts with other usage interests and problems, such as the public supply of drinking water, over 70 percent of which is obtained from groundwater. In addition, forests consume a lot of groundwater in dry times, this can affect rivers and other waters. The drought year 2018 and 2019 severely dried out many soils and water reservoirs, to compensate this it takes many years of rain above the usual annual average. Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony are the federal states with the lowest rainfall. Specific figures can be found on the relevant weather portals and statistics pages.

Forest dieback, desertification and expanding deserts in Europe

Due to the third year of drought in a row, there will also be considerable problems for the plant world in winter and spring 2020, as many soils and plants will not be able to recover so easily under these extreme conditions. The garden, park and forest maintenance is therefore more important than ever this year, every citizen should lend a hand in his spare time, even if it are just a few buckets of water for the tree in front of the door or some irrigation for bushes, hedges or trees at the streets. Unfortunately, awareness of sustainable use and the problem of water waste is still not taken seriously. The production of one kilo of beef requires around 15,000 liters of water, pork almost 6,000 and chicken 4,300 liters. The average water footprint in Germany is 3,900 liters per person per day. This figure includes the amount of water that is used for the production of consumed food and goods in one’s own country, but also the water that is needed, for example, for the manufacture of clothing or electrical appliances abroad. This also applies to ‘more ecological’ electric cars, which unfortunately are still made with a lot of coal, plastic and oil. The coal electricity for car production and rail traffic alone is astronomical.

2019 was the hottest year in the history of Europe, according to scientific findings, with the drought year 2018 and the drought summer 2020, it is now the worst drought in a row for 250 years. The droughts and heat waves of recent years clearly show that the climate crisis is having a significant impact on our lives, the environment, consumption and our economy. An adaptation of the plants to the more extreme climate occurs naturally, but should be supported and improved by sustainable strategies of climate change adaptation. This should not only apply to crops or to livestock, but also especially to endangered species. The selfish nature, way of life and work in certain areas of society and industry, such as fossil energy, monotonous agriculture and forestry, is harming the environment. Selfishness, ignorance and little will to change in the direction of sustainability, nature and environmental protection have produced a destructive chemical industry, energy industry, aviation, shipping, heavy industry, monoculture agriculture and monotonous forestry.

The biodiversity, soil and water quality have suffered extremely, valuable landscapes and habitats have been destroyed or have been lost due to rigorous greed for profit and environmental degradation. If things continue like this, even regardless of the climate crisis, there will soon be no more fertile land, only dust and desert. Greening Deserts Climate analyses and long-term studies, in coordination with international climate researchers and climate models, have repeatedly confirmed an increase in extreme weather conditions – even before the drought years or floods of the century, as in Europe and India in 2018 and 2019. There have been several warnings that extreme droughts and floods will become more frequent in Europe, initially in southern Europe and, with further drought years, also in central Europe. This has now even been confirmed in a study by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig. Now all we need are realistic solutions and feasibility studies to counteract these extremely rapid changes. A wind of change is blowing.

Usually the jet stream with the high and low pressure areas moves from west to east and brings Central Europe a mix of sun, clouds and rain. However, with the accelerated climate change, the high pressure areas tend to persist for weeks over some European regions in summer. As a result, there are long heat waves and droughts, in the low-pressure areas there are more frequent heavy rain and floods. Various temperature and heat records have been set over the years, in 2020 there were many cold summer nights and very large temperature fluctuations. Due to the many dry and windy days, the drought has increased overall. The logging caused by wind and storm damage amounted to 18.5 million cubic meters in 2018. That is four times as much compared to the previous year. There are many forest fires because the soil and top layers with branches, leaves or needles are very dry. The risk of fire is also very high for agriculture, especially when dry fields catch fire, for example from careless drivers and smokers or from broken glass. A field fire, forest fire or forest fire is no fun because it can spread to settlements.

In many German cities there is a state of emergency, as the asphalt and concrete deserts often heat up more than the surrounding areas can quickly reach heat records of over 40 degrees. Many people, animals and plants die. In the Frankfurt metropolitan area, thousands of dead trees will probably have to be felled due to the weeks of drought and heat in the midsummer 2020. Particularly in the driest areas of Germany, many villages and towns are affected by the tree death. Due to the drought stress and plant water stress that has damaged and weakened the plants over the years, a relatively short heat phase is enough to give the plants the rest, then often watering them does not help. On the contrary, too much water at once can even damage the plants, for example if the plant cannot absorb much water due to a large part of dried up leaves, there is then a risk of accelerated root rot at the high temperatures, which can occur more often with tap water and dried out roots. If many of the deeper soil layers have completely dried out, the water cannot drain off properly, and waterlogging then forms in some places. Gardeners and plant experts know the problem. So if possible use rainwater and then not too much at once, preferably over a large area and spread over a few evenings. If the soil is not too hard, you can put drainage in some places with a pointed stick. If the soil is slightly damp overall, the rainwater can then penetrate better into deeper layers and root areas.

Climate change knows no borders, large parts of Europe are affected by drought and water scarcity. We need an adaptation and improvement of the water management or regulation as soon as possible in order to secure the public drinking water and industrial water supply in the long term. The fear of the consequences of a third year of drought is great, especially if the water table drops, entire rivers and lakes dry up. The drought threatens historical gardens and even well-known parks, the drought also has an indirect effect on all plant growth in the area. Only if the spread of healthy and relatively wild nature is promoted by favorable conditions nature as a whole can recover and regenerate. In the case of monoculture agriculture and monotonous forestry, this is difficult, but not impossible. Some consequences can only be felt years later, as environmental and weather systems sometimes react very slowly. It is similar to the nitrate or slurry problem, where in some extreme cases the groundwater wil be polluted over the years.

Really serious consequences for agriculture are still to come, probably in the years 2025 to 2030. From 2013 to 2015 there have been massive changes in global weather systems and cycles. Many of these changes also occur gradually and over long periods of time, so they cannot be seen as clearly as the consequences of a drought summer. So that you can really change something sustainably and positively, you should think in time windows of over 10 years or even decades. It is frightening to see even natural mixed forests which are suffering from climate change. The drought years even have a strong impact on humid areas, as the groundwater level often falls due to the long dry periods. Wetlands and bogs can dry out, which increases the likelihood of bog and forest fires. In addition, there are the problems of peat extraction and the drainage of landscapes for agriculture. The diverse forest conversion and the expansion of wetlands such as floodplains and moors must finally be given priority. Many nature reserves, national parks, natural regions and near-natural landscape protection areas should be expanded and connected, if possible for example with flower strips and wild meadows. Protected areas in nature and landscape protection should also be expanded and include urban regions and larger city parks or city forests. Special wilderness biotopes for a relatively free development of really ’natural nature’ should be made possible in the protected areas. Because nature is not the same as nature, at least according to the understanding of society and people.

Soil quality and healthier soils through more ecological forestry and sustainable agriculture, as well as better water management, are important to mitigate the negative consequences and effects of climate change. The already often mentioned building up of humus, cultivation of deep-rooting plants, soil improvement and green manure plants can contribute significantly to soil formation and improvement of the overall soil. Protective layers with ground cover and wildflower meadows can protect the soil in particularly hot and dry times. The principle applies, just let it grow and support nature in the development of biodiversity with natural seeds. Naturally with suitable species depending on the region and vegetation zone, i.e. suitable plants of / for mountainous areas, wetlands, grasslands, meadows and forests. To do this, one should think more about aquatic plants and then use them to improve water bodies. Because a large part of the rivers and lakes in Germany is in a precarious state, at least when it comes to the ecological aspect, neighboring agriculture, shipping and biodiversity. Without ecosystem services, human life on earth would not be possible. Worldwide, around 60% of the ecosystem services examined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are in a critical state; they are at great risk from environmental pollution and environmental damage.

We all have to help make whole landscapes more diverse and resistant to climate extremes, including urban regions and cities – for this purpose, among other things, the Urban Greening Camp project started. More urban greening, solar and water surfaces as well as lighter surfaces can cool down urban areas, so-called for near-natural recreation areas and biological diversity. Agriculture based on solidarity and community gardens are also good solutions that can bring more biodiversity and community profits.

Here are a few more suggestions for improvement.

  • Alternative water storage above and below ground, e.g. moats or ponds with clay or foils which will be filled with rainwater.
  • The bioeconomy, organic farming and solidarity agriculture have innumerable potentials, you just have to recognize them.
  • Soils rich in humus can store up to four times their own weight in water.
  • Stone dust from basalt can bind large amounts of CO2 which is absorbed by rainwater when it falls to the ground. Weathering creates carbonates, which are washed into the oceans by the rivers.
  • Extended use of rainwater reservoirs in the ground which are filled up with tarpaulins in spring, some gardeners and farmers use cold frame films or weed fleece anyway, this could be used sensibly for rainwater harvesting.
  • More wetlands and the expansion of wetlands can improve the water balance and water cycle. Different aquatic plants not only increase biodiversity, but are also good against drought.
  • The concept of agrophotovoltaics can also be used to collect rainwater. Classic drip irrigation can become even more ecological and economical with rainwater and water towers.
  • As already described in some articles, hemp plants can be used for soil improvement and a higher moisture content. Industrial hemp also improves biodiversity, produces a lot of humus thanks to the pronounced roots and it loosens the soils.
  • Deep roots and sprinklers such as desert bamboo can loosen hardened soils for a short time, especially in the middle areas of the soils. Subsoiling can also be achieved by using special agricultural crops.
  • Organic farming and forestry with more mixed cultures and more environmentally friendly energies are advisable.
  • More exchange between biologists, agricultural experts, climate researchers, forest scientists in connection with climate protection and environmental protection makes sense.
  • Adaptation of useful and important plants to climate change, finding and researching resistances in relation to extreme conditions, plant growth and yields.
  • Establishing more sustainable agriculture (EcoFarming) and more ecological forestry (Ecoforestry) with clean technologies (Cleantech) and green techniques or technologies (Greentech).
  • Agroforestry, Ecoforesty and Mixed Cultures are good solutions to combine reforestation, greening and sustainble agriculture. Mixed tree, food crop farming (Mixed Cropping) and environmental greening has much potential to improve the air, environment, soil and water quality.
  • Innovative and diverse reforestation or forestation of former forest areas and man-made deserts – these are some reasons why the Trillion Trees Initiative was founded.

Professional advice and recommendation to good addresses and contacts in the above areas for corresponding consideration is possible, for this you can simply contact the author of this article by email.

Greening Deserts analyses and research projects have been dealing with climate change and extreme weather conditions such as exceptional heat, drought and floods since 2016. Despite all the optimism, the prognosis for the coming years does not look rosy. It takes a lot of effort, motivation and support to be able to work and live normally throughout the crisis. Cohesion is more important than ever in these times, egoism and ignorance only make things worse. We need more solidarity and courage, whether through useful information, the exchange of experiences or other meaningful actions. Simply going out into the streets unfortunately does not bring as much as taking part in constructive actions and actively participating in constructive actions for species protection, climate protection, nature conservation and environmental protection. For example planting trees, watering urban trees and plants, sowing wildflowers and caring for parks and meadows. Leaving this to others like the green space authorities or city cleaning is not a solution. In some countries or regions the corona crisis can result in massive financial problems and financial crises. There will be a lack of funds and resources for many of important environmental tasks or work in future. We all need to hold together in relation to the health of us all and the environment. Healthy ecosystems are the basis for a healthy life.

The global economic crisis and COVID-19 recession (Great Lockdown) will occupy society and the economy for many years to come. In principle there are several crises, e.g. the education crisis, health crisis, cultural crisis and social crisis. Greening Deserts articles also deal with these topics, especially in relation to the effects, consequences and causes of climate change. Many potential solutions are offered, but most of them can only be solved together – some of the suggestions have already been implemented personally or privately. I hope that many will follow. Good additions, ideas and suggestions for improvement are of course always welcome. @ feedback.greeningdeserts.com. Your friend of nature, Oliver Gediminas Caplikas. The next article deals with climate change adaptation and urban greening on many levels, for example with vertical farming. Heat-resistant and drought-tolerant plant species as well as special climate change woody plants will play an important role. Some of the plants are even drought-resistant or have a high ‘drought resistance’.

Sustainable Investment in CleanTech GreenTech Education and Green Finance

Invest in true values like education, health, humanity, nature and sustainability.

Greening Deserts are economical, educational, cultural, social, scientific and sustainable projects to reduce desertification and global warming, to improve healthy environments, agriculture and forestry. Also for urban areas, city forests and gardens – especially community and rooftop gardens. They are good to cool down urban areas and filter the air. @Urban GreeningRooftop Greening, Community Gardening and City Farming (City Nursery)!

We can start primarly in the countries where we get the best, fastest and most support, also financially. The goal is to establish Research and Greening Camps for drylands and wastelands, especially in African and Arabic nations. We want to connect them during the years and bring the nations together, also by connected megaprojects like the third Great Green Wall Project, the Green Ring Africa Platform (coastal greening), the Greenhouse Ship and Greening Coasts project. At the Frankfurt Book Fair and during the years we exchanged and talked a lot with many awesome people around the world. Exchanged and invited many ambassadors, ministers, trade commissioners, scientists and experts to join our campaigns, initiatives and projects – especially the 100 Billion Trees project and the Trillion Trees Campaign! If each nation would plant a billion trees minimum during the next years we maybe can cool down the planet and really reach some of the climate goals.

Healthy and natural environments are the best for health! That’s why Greening Deserts projects want to create and restore healthy environments worldwide. By the way, trees and many plants produce not just fresh air and water, they provide food and are the best medicine or health therapy. Clean air, water and a healthy environment are Human Rights!

To support the greening and forestation process, we want to develop seeding and greening drones, for larger areas we can use solar planes. It’s one of the first projects we will start at the first Greening Camp next year. The drones are mainly for greening drylands and wastelands fast and efficient, they are also good to improve the diversity of existing areas and forests. To reduce paper and wood waste we not just recommend recycled papers and produce on demand technologies, we started two projects to save the forests, too. Hemp Papers and Hemp Houses was founded during the last year. We will produce a lot of hemp during the greening process and can deliver a lot of raw materials for innovative paper, carton packaging and building products (like hemp bricks, press plates and OSB-boards). Because hemp is one of our key plants for the greening projects, so we can offer this resource for hemp product producers, the book, paper, packaging and building industry. Investors and strong future partners are welcome to join us in the early stage with green finance and seed capital.

You can download the article: Greening Deserts Sustainable Investment in CleanTech GreenTech Education and GreenFinance

Extreme Weather in Germany and Europe – Extreme Drought Heat Waves and Floods

Drought and heat are also a problem for the farmers. European farms expect harvest losses of 30 to 50 percent compared to the previous year. In parts of Germany, the soil is as dry as it has been for 50 years. Extreme drought, thunderstorms and floods often occur together and can severely affect affected countries.  These extreme weather conditions are increasing not just in Africa but also in Europe, particularly hit countries such as Greece, Spain and Italy, where massive forest fires and the resulting desertification increases extremely. This year, even European countries such as Germany and Poland are affected, where some regions even introduced emergency harvesting and water restrictions after the second drought. In some regions, rivers and lakes dry up, even the groundwater and drinking water is scarce. Greening Deserts has been reporting extensively on these topics for years, especially in terms of soil degradation and desertification. Large opencast mining areas (surface mining deserts), cities (concrete deserts) and urban regions also contribute to this extreme climate. Many of these consequences of man-made climate change are not exactly predictable, but can be estimated very well with today’s scientific findings in climate research. We discussed with many climate researchers, nature and environmentalists and exchanged about this problem.

Other topics such as the reform of agriculture, soil improvement and water improvement have been and will be discussed in detail. Unfortunately, we have not received any active and financial support from the responsible authorities since years. For a long time we could do research on more effective cultivation and irrigation methods with a first greening and research camp in the surface mining landscape of Leipzig (Lakeland Neuseenland) – if our inquiries and demands had been taken seriously, especially by the big parties who were informed several times. Our demands and requests for help to German foundations, especially in the field of education, nature and environmental protection were ignored or there were the usual excuses.

We hope for quick help or support, so that we can work together with all involved parties to make the coal exit and transformation of the energy industry and agriculture to clean energy and technologies (cleantech) fast and efficient. We want to cultivate bamboo, hemp and palm trees on a large scale in opencast mining areas – not just because of the benefits in these areas, but also because of new innovative developments and compensatory measures in relation to global warming. In addition, special desert plants, extremely resistant, robust and undemanding plants are explored, such as rock garden plants and desert bamboo. Thus, many useful plants for improving the quality of soil, air and water can be used not only on land, but also in urban areas and large cities. Of course we will run a diverse agriculture and gardening – this is also called ecofarming. Wild blooms and flowerbeds counteract massive bee and insect deaths or in general the massive extinction of species. As you can see Greening Deserts is not only concerned with deserts and desertification but with many other important tasks and topics. If this is not eligible .. an extensive consultation and accompaniment to appropriate funding would be really appropriate.

Read more:

https://climatenewsnetwork.net/3c-may-double-europes-drought-risk

https://www.zmescience.com/science/europe-drought-future-2427845

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/04/extreme-heat-warnings-issued-europe-temperatures-pass-40c

http://change-games.com/blog/world-biggest-problems-desertification-global-warming-and-other-negative-climate-changes

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/13/heatwave-sees-record-high-temperatures-set-around-world-this-week

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-grains-harvest/eu-baltic-sea-region-wheat-crops-suffer-from-drought-idUSKBN1JB1WA

https://www.sciencealert.com/all-time-heat-records-have-been-set-all-over-the-world-this-week-ireland-scotland-canada-middle-east-climate-change

Visit our social and scientific pages and groups for more information. You’re welcome to discuss and to exchange with us about all these topics!

Greening Deserts Master Plan for a Fast Coal Exit and to Reduce Global Warming

Greening Deserts don’t just worked out a Business Plan and Master Plan for a fast coal exit and sustainable agriculture, greening and forestation in open cast mining deserts like in Germany. The plans are for all other dry and barren landscapes, too. The concepts also work for concrete or desert cities and urban areas. Greening and research camps can be build in each country or nation who need fast and sustainable land regeneration and revegetation. With our methods and techniques we can produce fast top soil layers and clean filtered water. Subsoiling and repairing damages to the soil we can do with special plants (top soil producers and deep rooters). Desert bamboo and other pioneer plants can loosening any dry and barren soil in just a few years. After the first year, trees and soil producing plants like hemp can be planted between the pioneer plants – who dropping shadow and holding the water in the ground. Bamboo groves, woods and forests holding enourmous amounts of water. The greening camps nearby waters like lakes, rivers, seas and oceans will study and research on advanced and new irrigation, water filtering and desalination methods. Water research and improvement is a very important field of Greening Deserts research projects. With all our sustainable projects it’s really possible to reduce the global warming to a significant level.

The concepts and master plans of Greening Deserts don’t covering only the thematics conservation, ecology, education, environmental protection, cultural and economical issues, but also social and scientific topics like the migration caused by global warming and human-made climate change. Most of the refugees are climate change refugees, leaving their countries because of land degeneration and desertification. These real causes of migration must be solved at the roots in all these poor nations. Fight the true causes of poverty not the symptoms. Worked years on these themes and wrote many articles about. Together with the master plan many good and innovative solutions are ready to be realised. Regreen or recultivate Africa and MENA region, especially East and North Africa to stop the main causes of migration. And we ask again, why refugee camps have no or just less greenhouses and gardens. There are so many cheap and mobiles greenhouses, so like greenhouse, solar and water producing containers.

Greening Deserts analyzing, researching and documenting innovative and problematic developments for years – especially in the energy, agriculture and science sectors. But it’s not just about the problems, we also developed or researched sustainable and real good solutions – and world innovations @Greening Coasts, Greenhouse Ship, Green Ring Africa, Great Green Wall North Africa,.. Climate, nature and environmental protection plays a special role here. Everyone should have noticed the extreme climate or weather in Germany and Europe, especially the floods, droughts and heat waves. Those who continue to ignore all these facts, especially those responsible in industry and government, are responsible for the consequences of climate change and the consequences of global warming. They are also responsible for all the millions of climate refugees and deaths who suffer or die each year from extreme drought and air pollution. The main causes or culprits are cattle breeding, meat production, the car industry, the coal industry, the arms industry and the armaments industry, but also the responsible policy. Every year, billions (unfortunately also much taxpayers money) are wasted in these areas. For example, at least half (such as food) is not needed or consumed – a massive logistics and over-production problem. Precious foods (such as corn) that are gasified or burned for energy production are not a good solution, especially if rainforests are cut down for them – see Brazil, Germany and the energy maize.

The time to act is now, we are tired of waiting years over years that the responsibles in Europe finally support us and our innovative ideas or developments actively and financially – especially since many responsibles were informed. How said, the master plan is ready since last year! You can download on our pages.

Please support our innovative, social and sustainable projects for a better and greener world. It’s your planet and your future, too! Help nature and planet earth with all the different life forms or species to regenerate and to survive. Care the endangered species before they die out, caused mainly by deforestation. Reduce and stop this madness, because there are enough alternatives to wood and classic paper like grass, hemp and rice straw paper. Help us to plant millions or even billions of trees in future. Forests are the true cloud and rain makers, if the forests are back, water and wildlife will come back.

To all the politics and responsibles (Coal Commission, etc.), start finally to act and replace the dirty coal!

Don’t talk, plant trees and realise more sustainable energies.

Unique Selling Points and Innovations of Greening Deserts Projects

The second Greening Deserts Master Plan for desert areas such as open-pit deserts is ready and of course in continuous development.

The business plan, concept and study on sustainable greening methods, greenhouse management, forestry, agriculture and cultural economy for  opencast mine and post-mining landscapes can also be adapted as needed or revised for any situation.

In the following a few special Unique Selling Propositions (USPs) and innovative ideas are briefly summarized.

  • Growing, cultivation and care of rare endangered species, especially plants of the Red List – with extra greenhouses and grounds (botanical garden, park, forest) can be established
  • Biomass Research, production and recycling, processing or recycling of urban bio-waste for energy and soil production in opencast mine or post-mining areas (Biowaste Management)
  • Development and testing of greenhouse types and equipment in extreme landscapes like deserts, offering professional services, product and quality testing in relation to the industries or manufacturers
  • Greenhouse Management, Biosphere and Habitat Research
  • Product reviews, product testing and (re)presentation for manufacturers
  • Research into flexible, transparent or transparent solar cells for solar greenhouses, especially in terms of efficiency
  • Research and development related to agriculture, forestry and renewable energy such as solar and water energy in or with extreme environmental conditions
  • Cultivation of special crops and medicinal plants such as hemp
  • Scalability of the concept, also for urban spaces and urban deserts
  • Testing of various irrigation systems, greenhouses or greenhouse systems, including systems for efficiency, resilience and durability
  • Testing and development of special constructions of solar greenhouses, office-, greenhouse- and laboratory-containers
  • Comprehensive load test and quality tests for suppliers or products, if necessary even under extreme conditions (weather, temperatures,..)
  • Improving education and development processes and learning methods related to nature, self-esteem and community environmental awareness
  • Desert research in opencast mine, surface mining or post-mining landscapes – also known as open-pit deserts
  • Space or planetary research in mining landscapes, sometimes called as lunar, Martian or Mars landscapes

Most work, services or services can be realized with sufficient resources and resources with a few helpers. With money, financial resources or support it is no problem to build fast a good time. The services are chargeable, but in some exceptions such as investments, joint ventures, sponsorships or similar collaborations may be free or mutually beneficial. Various constellations, partnerships and synergy effects are possible. Further information can be found in the Masterplan 2 and partner, investor or sponsoring concept.

Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving. – Albert Einstein

Faith moves mountains, intelligence goes over them, wisdom goes around them, but love levels them. – Matshona Dhliwayo

You don’t climb mountains without a team, you don’t climb mountains without being fit, you don’t climb mountains without being prepared and you don’t climb mountains without balancing the risks and rewards. And you never climb a mountain on accident – it has to be intentional. – Mark Udall

Doubt makes the mountain that faith can shift. – German proverb

Faith can move mountains. Doubt can create them.

Greening Deserts Projects Want to Plant over 100 Billion Trees Worldwide

One goal of Greening Deserts projects is to plant over 100 billion trees worldwide, especially in Europe and Africa during the next years. Together with the nations and awesome projects like the Great Green Wall, Great Green Wall North Africa, The Green Belt Movement and the Trillion Trees Campaign we can reach the goal fast and efficient.
Alone the Sahara is an area of 9,500,000 square kilometres, this is equal 950,000,000 ha (950 million hectares). If we plant trees just on 10% of this area we could convert 95 million hectares dry and barren wasteland into fertile landscapes. We want to establish greening camps and connect schools, universities and other institutions to the Greening Deserts projects and partner programs. A broad education and culture is very important for the projects. With active participation and real support of the concerned regions and financial help of all nations and goverments we can start with first preperations still this year and in 2018 on site – and see first results still that year. With our worldwide greening and forestation (afforestation and reforestation) projects we can reduce global warming significantly. To cool down cities and urban areas (Global Cooling), more parks and green roofs (rooftop greening) are required.

Here are some interesting articles about similar projects:

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/felix-finkbeiner-plant-for-the-planet-one-trillion-trees

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/brazil-begins-effort-plant-73-million-trees-amazon-180967086

http://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2017/10/one-billion-tree-target-will-take-huge-commitment.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/india-plant-66-million-trees-12-hours-environment-campaign-madhya-pradesh-global-warming-climate-a7820416.html

https://www.treehugger.com/environmental-policy/india-plant-2-billion-trees-along-its-highways.html

https://www.voanews.com/a/one-billion-trees-planted-in-pakistan-nw-province/3983609.html

https://www.nature.com/news/global-count-reaches-3-trillion-trees-1.18287

Top 10 countries with largest forest areas 2017:
1. Russia – 814 million hectares of native forest.
2. Brazil – 493 million hectares of native forest.
3. Canada – 347million hectares of native forest.
4. USA – 310 million hectares of native forest.
5. China – 208 million hectares of native forest.
6. Congo – 152 million hectares of native forest.
7. Australia – 123 million hectares of native forest.
8. Indonesia – 91 million hectares of native forest.
9. Peru – 73 million hectares of native forest.
10. India – 70 million hectares of native forest.

And European countries like Germany?

It doesn’t matter how much trees you plant, a million, billion or trillion trees – each action in this direction counts. Support sustainable greening projects for a greener and better future for us all!

Greening Camps and Research Projects for Surface Mining Deserts – Concept and Study for Opencast Mine and Post-Mining Landscapes

Excerpt of the Business Plan and Master Plan 2 in german language: Greening and Research Camps for Surface Mining Deserts: Concept and Study on Sustainable Greening Methods, Greenhouse Management, Forestry, Agriculture and Culture Industry for Surface Mining and Post-Mining Landscapes. – This is a pre-release published on 31 October 2017, Reformation Day in Germany.

Desert research, research and development of sustainable greening methods, greenhouse management, forestry, agriculture and cultural industries are the primary fields of the concept and greening deserts projects. The greening and research camp with a greenhouse, office or laboratory containers or tents for the research and development of greening and irrigation methods is the primary objective for open pit mines. Secondary objectives, such as sustainable recreational use and tourism offers, can be realized during the operation over the years and are not necessary for the successful start of the research project and base camp in the opencast mining area or a post-mining landscape. This also eliminates all associated conditions, provisions and legal regulations, since for the time being no public recreational use or tourism operation takes place. Nevertheless, forward-looking considerations and planning approaches as well as extensive points on the areas or topics were worked out and summarized in this concept. Greening Deserts projects are always planned as long-term and sustainable as possible.

Further tasks and goals of the projects are the education, research and realization of a sustainable greening, management and cultivation of all kinds of poor, barren and dry areas, landscapes (drylands) or regions. That’s why the main project u.a. Greening Deserts, which treats not only typical deserts but all types of deserts, including open-pit deserts, concrete or urban deserts. This can all be done with suitable greening and research camps, wards and centers. In this work and in the concept possibilities and ways of doing so are analyzed and discussed on the example of research and greening camps for opencast deserts, mining landscapes or post-mining landscape landscapes. The research camp should be an encounter, education and communication platform in post-mining landscapes, internally for experts, experts and scientists, and in future also publicly for all possible visitors.

For a start, the greening, nature and research projects focus on nature experiences, important experience and research in the particular area or terrain. Everything is analyzed, documented and informed about interesting findings and developments. In the course of the project, interested and competent bodies or persons will be communicated – via existing and new networks, and then on site as well. In addition to well-known environmental education instruments and programs, the active experience of nature and creative forms of exploration and experimentation should also be researched and developed. Particular attention is paid to the practice-oriented work, if possible outdoors. The motto is: away from unhealthy, artificial working and living spaces. Out of sterile offices or laboratories. Out of the house or city, work and live in healthy habitats, in a positive environments of true and true nature or natural environment.

Extensive research results, discoveries, developments and experiences in all mentioned areas of projects can be exchanged and compared with international institutions and scientific institutions. Most of the information and results are publicly or online available and will be published according to their level of development or needs. This will further enhance development and processes and can really help problem areas and poor countries (Third World / Emerging Countries). The research results, experiences and insights form a cornerstone for space gardening or space research in relation to professional greenhouse management, even for desert planets such as Mars. Also interesting would be a Mars Research Station for surface mining or post-mining landscapes. For this reason, with sufficient financial support or funding, further developments and research should be carried out, such as hydroponics, such as aquaponics or hydroponics, solar greenhouses and special biospheres.

During the first years additional places, paths and paths for recreational activities or recreational activities such as hiking and cycling can be planned and set up. For this purpose, with sufficient resources extra vantage points, experience rooms, rest areas, shelters, actuation and art objects can be realized. This is very good due to a strong presence and good contacts.. Further information (texts, pictures, lists, tables, etc.) in the concept or appendix. This concept, scientific study, market analysis and master plan was writen by Oliver Gediminas Caplikas.

Socioeconomic Aspects and Factors of Greening and Desert Research in Surface Mining Deserts

Historical and cultural information on the past of the landscape and its use, also before the industrial mining period, are offered in the research camp as well as on corresponding pages on the Internet. Products such as books, pictures, photographs, films, works of art and antiques can be offered in a separate shop. Many socioeconomic factors and, above all, commercial aspects are in the area of ​​health care, recreation, sports and tourism. There are many commercial and economic effects in terms of income sources, employment and multipliers.

Other aspects:

  • Annual analysis and adaptation of the target groups, needs and interests of the visitors and / or customers with regard to the new mountain landscape landscapes (BFL) or lake landscapes
  • Direct and indirect employment and income effects, sales and profits through the sustainable management of opencast mining and mining landscapes
  • Marketing, merchandising and promotion on all possible channels, networks and platforms in German and English
  • Sustainable and forward-looking planning for the consumer and tourism sector
  • Bringing to the landscape dynamics and development in all its facets, showing the natural development processes of the landscape and vegetation
  • Use of local conditions and natural developments for unique natural experiences and experiences in the daytime landscape
  • Improvement of the image of the former day building landscape, elucidation of current, completed and future transformation or transformation processes
  • Arrangement of inexpensive tours and courses (for example, adventure walks, boat trips, bike tours) to the various natural themes, especially on the subject of nature conservation and natural forces

Financing can be provided through various sources of finance, such as crowding, capital, capital, investment capital, credit, venture capital (venture capital), private and public funding. The best is a good mix of uncomplicated and different financing, especially if there is enough evidence of efficiency and feasibility. Similar and successful concepts, feasibility studies and market analyzes in the relevant areas can make financing much easier. Profitable, long-term or future-oriented business ideas and concepts are often financed quickly. Unique features and strong references promote successful funding for new start-ups, start-ups, projects or existing companies.

There are many other social and economic (sociocultural) aspects or topics on greening and desert exploration in opencast mining deserts. These are extensively analyzed and processed with the Greening Deserts research projects. Read more on the official pages and in the masterplan: “Concept and Study on Sustainable Greening Methods, Greenhouse Management, Forestry, Agriculture and Culture Industry for Surface Mining and Post-Mining Landscapes“.

 

Further Goals and Ideas for the Effective, Sustainable and Fast Cultivation of Surface Mining Landscapes

In this article, further approaches and ideas for naturalization, rehabilitation, cultivation and recultivation will be presented in relation to all responsible persons and within the scope of the greening and research projects for surface mining or post-mining landscapes.

An important goal for opencast mine and post-mining landscapes or lakelands is the production of a balanced, stable and clean water balance as well as a good soil quality. The following points must be observed:

  • Balancing the nutrient and pollutant content through filter systems and regulating the oxygen content by means of ventilation and circulation. This can also be achieved by integration into irrigation systems on land and with suitable plants, water plants and microorganisms
  • Compliance with limit values ​​and reduction if possible, for example noise level, loads and pollutants in surface mining or post-mining landscapes
  • Comprehensive investigation, research and use of hitherto unknown methods of detoxification or cleaning and regulation, including the improvement of groundwater and soil
  • Efficient fieldwork and advanced field research
  • Exploration of further methods of improving soil and water quality, feasibility studies and weighing efficiency / benefits
  • Achieve good water quality according to the EU Bathing Water Directive
  • Encourage or support the self-cleaning of surface mining lakes
  • Promotion of the settlement of endangered animal and plant species by the establishment, extension and maintenance of free, undeveloped nature reserves
  • Research on improved methods of colonization and propagation of endangered species, the creation of suitable habitats and zoological gardens or parks
  • Counteracting or reducing the entrophy and acidification of lakes and groundwater
  • Monitoring of soils and water bodies using appropriate instruments
  • Long-term planning and annual adjustment of the design concept as well as the renovation plans
  • Subsequent integration of visitors from all areas into the entire process, providing exploratory tours and hands-on workshops in the research camp and secured terrain
  • Shore and embankment protection as well as appropriate coastal greening should be preferred to pure gravel or sandy beaches
  • Lectures, photo and film shows, information and teaching events

Responsible organizations, institutions and persons must comply with the laws, regulations and guidelines, and must regularly prove this, if possible every year.

A good example of waterborne and aftercare is described in the “Sustainable recreational use and tourism in post-mining landscapes”. Here is an excerpt:

“Water maintenance is the task of preserving or restoring the functionality of the water bed including the shores to the top of the slope. This also includes the ecological and land-cultural function of water bodies, in particular

(1) the conservation and restoration of a native plant and animal population in natural diversity;

(2) the maintenance and improvement of the self-cleaning capacity, unless other are required to do so;

(3) the maintenance, cleansing and clearing of the waters and shores as far as is necessary;

(4) the keeping of the waters and its banks of pests;

5. the removal of solid substances from or from the waters of the waters, in so far as is necessary in the public interest. “

Documentations and information on the cultural, settlement, social and economic history of the region can be processed in various forms or varieties in the future, eg in tourist offers. This includes, for example, the expansion of the leisure activities and the program by means of landscape-related sports and games. These include, for example, Fitness facilities and activities, motor sports, mountain biking, aerial sports, water sports, winter sport and new sporting activities – all with the best possible connection to nature and nature conservation. In the future real recreational parks can be developed and built with a real relationship with nature.

Climate Protection, Extreme Weather and Civil Protection Through Preventive Greening

The Greening Deserts greening projects and research camps also develop and conduct research in the climate and weather sector. Effective methods and measures for climate and disaster control are and will be researched and developed. Below are a few approaches and ideas listed.

  • Relief and prevention in case of extreme weather catastrophes, better ground protection against erosion and landslides, especially flood disasters
  • Reduce the risk of flooding by planted areas or soils as they are better able to absorb water, drain more quickly and can store more water overall
  • Flood protection and prevention in extreme weather conditions by protective walls of flexible and robust trees and shrubs, which can intercept or dampen also strong winds and extreme storms (storm surges, tornadoes, hurricanes, etc.)
  • Improvement of flood retention and flood relief through large-scale greening and forest cover


A definition for flood protection according to DIN 4047:

“All the measures of watercourse development through water regulations and regulation, flood retention and / or structural alteration to the structures and facilities to be protected, which serve to reduce the flood area, lower the flood level and / or encourage flood discharge.”

A continuous discussion of the conflicts between the recreational and / or use forms and nature conservation is sought, also during the operation of projects and ventures in Post-Mining Landscapes. This serves the smooth running on all sides, the improvement of synergies and the avoidance of errors and duplicates or really unnecessary work. Ignorance should be avoided and communication promoted, especially in today’s times. This applies to all participants or agents in the region of the respective surface mining areas. The possibilities and potential of transparent working in mining landscapes are also important, as a result of which the overall image of the mining industry and the respective regions can be considerably improved. It also promotes awareness of nature conservation and positive change in the society.

It is also important to observe and comply with provisions, laws, regulations, guidelines and values ​​for nature conservation in connection with or in relation to sustainable tourism, leisure and recreational use in mining landscape. Minimizing conflict potential and risks in this regard must be a task and in the interests of everyone, and extensive risk management for the region should be sought from all sources. Therefore, with this work and this concept is called to participate, to contribute ideas and suggestions. This can be done via the public pages or channels and by the official contact information.

Article published in October 2017.

Cultural, Social and Economic Aspects for Greening of Surface Mining Landscapes

On the pages of Greening Deserts and in the entire concept, cultural, social, economic and scientific aspects of professional greening and research projects for mining, surface mining and post-mining landscapes are described. Important and additional points are summarized here.

  • Agriculture, sustainable farming and agricultural forestation or agroforestry are important research fields
  • Establishment and development of a professional network with experts in the fields of culture, business and science – especially in the field of nature conservation, sustainable greening, agriculture, forestry and greenhouse management
  • Development and offer of an extensive sociocultural program with art and music, free of charge and paid
  • Offer and sale of natural products (medicines and crops) and services, see concept and section ‘Services’
  • Exhibitions from and for art, not just landscape art
  • Involvement of artists and works of art in the landscape and processes
  • Introduction of landscape planning, nature conservation and socioeconomic areas or fields by integrating suitable and interested institutions, organizations and partners as well as persons and associations with potential or professional competence
  • Promotion of the recultivation and rehabilitation of opencast mining areas for a better future use, sustainable nature conservation, cultural, social and economic purposes in connection with the respective municipalities and regions
  • Integration of schools, universities and other educational institutions in the development and development process, but also through extra programs, guided tours, trainings, workshops and events
  • Sustainable landscaped recreational use, national and international tourism with the best possible natural experience, cultural and artistic life experience
  • Sustainable and economical management, optimization and improvement of the energy industry
  • Use and adaptation of conditions and properties of opencast mining deserts for realistic desert exploration, especially in the summer
  • Continuous research and development of forms or techniques of greenhouse, forestry and agriculture
  • Development and research of wind, water and solar systems within the framework of the research projects

Further points and extensive information on the topics are extensively described in the master plan “Concept and Study on Sustainable Greening Methods, Greenhouse Management, Forestry, Agriculture and Culture Industry for Surface Mining and Post-Mining Landscapes“.

Download PDF: Cultural, Social and Economic Aspects for Greening of Surface Mining Landscapes

Potentials of Sustainable Greening and Research in Opencast Mine and Mining Landscapes

We call for greening campaigns and research camps for opencast mine and former mining landscapes.

Innovative ideas and potentials for sustainable greening and research projects for post-mining landscapes and opencast mining (opencast mining) are briefly summarized.

  • General desert research and studies on desert plants or vegetation
  • Better drainage and distribution of surface, ground and ground water
  • Education and training of a better understanding of nature and understanding, especially for the young generation
  • Detoxification and detoxification of toxins and pollutants in the soil and water through surface mining operations and other environmental pollution
  • Development, extension and improvement of soil production and irrigation methods
  • Increasing the storage capacity, capacity and potential of soils, especially with loamy or other sealed soils and surfaces
  • Good balance of technical potentials and future use targets
  • Cultivation of medicinal and other useful crops in greenhouses and opencast mining areas
  • Developing or researching of new and optimizing old farming and gardening methods or techniques
  • Use of natural and artificial water reservoirs (tanks, ponds, reservoirs) for the production of various waters, e.g. Mixed, usable, mineral and drinking water
  • Potential for events and events in the cultural, social and scientific fields, e.g. exhibitions, information events and music events
  • Extensive and comprehensive information related to natural themes
  • Extensive exploration and documentation of the opencast mining deserts and nature including the animal world, also microcosm
  • Improve agriculture, hydroponics and permaculture methods or techniques
  • Improvement of cultural, social and economic offers in the respective regions, thereby reducing the lack of employment and unemployment in mining and opencast mining areas
  • Improved protection in extreme weather conditions, e.g. during flood catastrophes, storms and flooding
  • Improvement of the water quality by proven and new water systems, overground and underground
  • Reinforcement and improvement of the relation or connection between man and nature
  • Water processing, filtration and extraction
  • Future-oriented developments and explorations with the aid of greening and desert camps for all types of deserts or barren landscapes, also for deserts and desert explorations on the desert planet Mars


Further good ideas and innovations can be found throughout the concept and on the official pages.