Since 2018, new records have been set in terms of droughts, hottest months and driest years in centuries. The drought, heat and pests have been affecting the forests more and more since 2019 and unfortunately there is no improvement in sight in 2020 either. In Germany there was the most severe forest damage in over 200 years. Fires and storms have greater effects, because of the large amount of damaged wood and the tree damage, there are more problems with pests and fungal attack. Fine dust and environmental toxins from agriculture give many plants and animals the rest, especially insects such as bees suffer from environmental destruction. Air pollution, insecticides and pesticides are not only a danger for bees, they also endanger many other species, especially in areas of agriculture and livestock farms. Many of the typical trees and forests in forestry are monocultures and conifers such as douglas firs, spruces, pines, larches and firs – unfortunately they do not offer much nectar. Almost 80 percent of the conifers were felled because of damage. At just under 70 percent, the proportion of damaged wood in 2019 was more than three times as high as in 2010. As already described in the article on the Leipzig Oak Park of Diversity project, even strong tree species such as oaks are affected. Whether from pests, powdery mildew or drought stress, the plants suffer very badly from drought. Like many deciduous trees, oaks are deep-rooted, which draw water from the lower soil layers. What they don’t need themselves, they release closer to the surface. This makes oak a good soil regulator, for example through its pronounced symbioses with microorganisms and fungi. Oaks and other robust trees suffer from climate change, as do many people and animals. Damage to trees and forests is not only caused by fire, drought and heat waves, but also by fungus, pests, snow breaks, storms, floods and environmental toxins – as well as air and water pollution.
There are around four billion hectares of forest on earth. There are around 60,000 tree species worldwide and over 10,000 of them are threatened with extinction. According to an assessment by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), more than half of European tree species are endangered. Of the approximately 450 tree species, 265 do not occur on any other continent. More than 150 species are threatened, 66 species are at the highest level of endangerment and therefore close to extinction. In total, more than 28,000 animal and plant species are listed as endangered worldwide. These are data and statistics from recent years and some of the figures are already out of date, especially after the massive droughts and forest fires. It can be assumed that many more species are now threatened and in some regions even extinct.
According to climate research, long-term studies and weather experts, extreme drought is becoming normal in Europe in summer. In spring there is also a lack of water for healthy plant growth in many places around the world. The soils and forests can hold less water because the important reservoirs are not only dried out but damaged, i.e. the storage capacity is reduced and in some cases reduced for years. If middle and deeper soil layers harden, humus layers decay to dust or are destroyed, even a lot of rain does not help at first. It then takes years of moderate rain and much plant growth until these soil layers are loosened and watered again. Trees, hedges and other plants that can form complex, strong and deep roots need a few years to loosen middle and deep soil layers. Many plants lose branches, leaves and fruit during a drought or extreme drought. The proportion of trees with significant crown thinning increased to about 35 percent in 2019. If the trees and plants are generally weakened, they are more susceptible to parasites and other pests such as bark beetles, jewel beetles and processionary moth. In most cases, the damaged wood cannot remain in the forest. Much of this wood is not suitable for wood processing or high-quality products for the construction and furniture industries. Often the only option left is to process it into inferior wood products such as chipboard or wood pellets. A lot of damaged wood has been coming onto the market since 2018 and the price of wood has collapsed dramatically, the forecasts for 2021 and 2022 do not look any better. There is currently so much wood per year that would normally be enough for three years or more. The forest and wood industries are recording massive losses, and even cheap oak is already being sold as firewood. Forest companies and forest owners will have to work for a long time to compensate and repair the damage of recent years.
Future challenges, conflicts, wars and crises because of the worldwide water availability and water supply
The water reserves in the soil are becoming increasingly scarce, the soils are becoming drier overall. It has been relatively dry in Germany since 2015. The past two years exceeded the previous record drought of 1976. At that time it was exceptionally dry for five years and some tree species were replaced or supplemented by drought-resistant species such as hornbeam, service tree and field maple. But the adaptation of forests to the crisis and forest restructuring makes no sense if the groundwater will levels sink, lakes, rivers and water reservoirs partially dry up. Dry periods in winter are also a big problem, because when there is no snow there is much less water due to the melting of snow. The problem has been known for a long time, for example the lack of water supply due to the disappearance of glaciers and large areas of snow or ice. When mountains and oceans absorb more sun, the planet heats up even faster, especially at the North Pole. Fires and very hot times in northern areas of Russia also accelerate the thawing of the permafrost soil. Similar to the largest share of the greenhouse gas methane from agriculture or livestock farming, methane is released by the decomposition of the thawed biomass. As this happens in a very short time, the atmosphere, biosphere and weather systems cannot simply compensate for this, resulting in extreme climate changes and an increase in extreme weather conditions. For some years now, climate researchers have been able to prove the connection between extreme drought and severe flooding. In the meantime, there have been several fires, droughts and floods of the century, not only in Germany and Europe – but unfortunately also in Africa, America, Asia and India.
According to various surveys, around 80 percent are very concerned about the persistent drought. In France, Poland, the Czech Republic and other European countries, the spring was marked by low rainfall this year. French forests are very much endangered by the drought years and the hot summer of 2019. It was one of the deadliest heat waves in all of Europe, killing thousands of humans. The harmful effects of the droughts can be clearly seen on satellite images, many brown and gray fields in Europe and many large cities such as Berlin are affected. It affects especially regions in the north and east, in principle all federal states are affected. The cities in particular need more greenery, as they can heat up much more as the surrounding area. What you see more and more often are dry meadows, trees and bushes. The parks and water areas are therefore just as important as the greening of roofs and facades. The soil moisture, the total groundwater level and the groundwater levels in different regions of Germany are too low, at least in relation to normal amounts of precipitation and water levels. In April 2020, there was far too little rainfall in almost all federal states; the states of Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia were particularly affected. The soil moisture in the topsoil and total soil is simply too little for many plants. Due to the lack of water available to plants, drought stress or water stress quickly occurs. The photosynthesis of the plants and the growth decrease. If the usable soil water continues to fall, plant water stress occurs and the plants begin to dry up.
The drought monitor of the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research showed that the total soil in large parts of Germany was characterized by extreme to extraordinary drought in April and midsummer 2020. Similar to the drought monitor from the Environmental Research Center in Leipzig, there is also a research project in Switzerland called Drought CH or Trockenheit.ch, where information on the current situation is shown. The colleagues also summarize a lot of interesting data from the last few years. Such information is becoming more and more important, especially if conflicts over water resources increase in the future, whether in the energy industry for cooling or in agriculture for agricultural irrigation. It affects many European countries. If the water reserves become increasingly scarce, conflicts of use over water resources can be intensified considerably. The use of water, water resources and water management must become more economical or more sustainable so that there is not another water crisis in the next few years. Using ponds, water towers and underground water reservoirs to collect rainwater makes more and more sense, especially when you consider that around 80 percent of all irrigation throughout Germany is done with groundwater. An increasing demand for water from agriculture contrasts with other usage interests and problems, such as the public supply of drinking water, over 70 percent of which is obtained from groundwater. In addition, forests consume a lot of groundwater in dry times, this can affect rivers and other waters. The drought year 2018 and 2019 severely dried out many soils and water reservoirs, to compensate this it takes many years of rain above the usual annual average. Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony are the federal states with the lowest rainfall. Specific figures can be found on the relevant weather portals and statistics pages.
Forest dieback, desertification and expanding deserts in Europe
Due to the third year of drought in a row, there will also be considerable problems for the plant world in winter and spring 2020, as many soils and plants will not be able to recover so easily under these extreme conditions. The garden, park and forest maintenance is therefore more important than ever this year, every citizen should lend a hand in his spare time, even if it are just a few buckets of water for the tree in front of the door or some irrigation for bushes, hedges or trees at the streets. Unfortunately, awareness of sustainable use and the problem of water waste is still not taken seriously. The production of one kilo of beef requires around 15,000 liters of water, pork almost 6,000 and chicken 4,300 liters. The average water footprint in Germany is 3,900 liters per person per day. This figure includes the amount of water that is used for the production of consumed food and goods in one’s own country, but also the water that is needed, for example, for the manufacture of clothing or electrical appliances abroad. This also applies to ‘more ecological’ electric cars, which unfortunately are still made with a lot of coal, plastic and oil. The coal electricity for car production and rail traffic alone is astronomical.
2019 was the hottest year in the history of Europe, according to scientific findings, with the drought year 2018 and the drought summer 2020, it is now the worst drought in a row for 250 years. The droughts and heat waves of recent years clearly show that the climate crisis is having a significant impact on our lives, the environment, consumption and our economy. An adaptation of the plants to the more extreme climate occurs naturally, but should be supported and improved by sustainable strategies of climate change adaptation. This should not only apply to crops or to livestock, but also especially to endangered species. The selfish nature, way of life and work in certain areas of society and industry, such as fossil energy, monotonous agriculture and forestry, is harming the environment. Selfishness, ignorance and little will to change in the direction of sustainability, nature and environmental protection have produced a destructive chemical industry, energy industry, aviation, shipping, heavy industry, monoculture agriculture and monotonous forestry.
The biodiversity, soil and water quality have suffered extremely, valuable landscapes and habitats have been destroyed or have been lost due to rigorous greed for profit and environmental degradation. If things continue like this, even regardless of the climate crisis, there will soon be no more fertile land, only dust and desert. Greening Deserts Climate analyses and long-term studies, in coordination with international climate researchers and climate models, have repeatedly confirmed an increase in extreme weather conditions – even before the drought years or floods of the century, as in Europe and India in 2018 and 2019. There have been several warnings that extreme droughts and floods will become more frequent in Europe, initially in southern Europe and, with further drought years, also in central Europe. This has now even been confirmed in a study by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig. Now all we need are realistic solutions and feasibility studies to counteract these extremely rapid changes. A wind of change is blowing.
Usually the jet stream with the high and low pressure areas moves from west to east and brings Central Europe a mix of sun, clouds and rain. However, with the accelerated climate change, the high pressure areas tend to persist for weeks over some European regions in summer. As a result, there are long heat waves and droughts, in the low-pressure areas there are more frequent heavy rain and floods. Various temperature and heat records have been set over the years, in 2020 there were many cold summer nights and very large temperature fluctuations. Due to the many dry and windy days, the drought has increased overall. The logging caused by wind and storm damage amounted to 18.5 million cubic meters in 2018. That is four times as much compared to the previous year. There are many forest fires because the soil and top layers with branches, leaves or needles are very dry. The risk of fire is also very high for agriculture, especially when dry fields catch fire, for example from careless drivers and smokers or from broken glass. A field fire, forest fire or forest fire is no fun because it can spread to settlements.
In many German cities there is a state of emergency, as the asphalt and concrete deserts often heat up more than the surrounding areas can quickly reach heat records of over 40 degrees. Many people, animals and plants die. In the Frankfurt metropolitan area, thousands of dead trees will probably have to be felled due to the weeks of drought and heat in the midsummer 2020. Particularly in the driest areas of Germany, many villages and towns are affected by the tree death. Due to the drought stress and plant water stress that has damaged and weakened the plants over the years, a relatively short heat phase is enough to give the plants the rest, then often watering them does not help. On the contrary, too much water at once can even damage the plants, for example if the plant cannot absorb much water due to a large part of dried up leaves, there is then a risk of accelerated root rot at the high temperatures, which can occur more often with tap water and dried out roots. If many of the deeper soil layers have completely dried out, the water cannot drain off properly, and waterlogging then forms in some places. Gardeners and plant experts know the problem. So if possible use rainwater and then not too much at once, preferably over a large area and spread over a few evenings. If the soil is not too hard, you can put drainage in some places with a pointed stick. If the soil is slightly damp overall, the rainwater can then penetrate better into deeper layers and root areas.
Climate change knows no borders, large parts of Europe are affected by drought and water scarcity. We need an adaptation and improvement of the water management or regulation as soon as possible in order to secure the public drinking water and industrial water supply in the long term. The fear of the consequences of a third year of drought is great, especially if the water table drops, entire rivers and lakes dry up. The drought threatens historical gardens and even well-known parks, the drought also has an indirect effect on all plant growth in the area. Only if the spread of healthy and relatively wild nature is promoted by favorable conditions nature as a whole can recover and regenerate. In the case of monoculture agriculture and monotonous forestry, this is difficult, but not impossible. Some consequences can only be felt years later, as environmental and weather systems sometimes react very slowly. It is similar to the nitrate or slurry problem, where in some extreme cases the groundwater wil be polluted over the years.
Really serious consequences for agriculture are still to come, probably in the years 2025 to 2030. From 2013 to 2015 there have been massive changes in global weather systems and cycles. Many of these changes also occur gradually and over long periods of time, so they cannot be seen as clearly as the consequences of a drought summer. So that you can really change something sustainably and positively, you should think in time windows of over 10 years or even decades. It is frightening to see even natural mixed forests which are suffering from climate change. The drought years even have a strong impact on humid areas, as the groundwater level often falls due to the long dry periods. Wetlands and bogs can dry out, which increases the likelihood of bog and forest fires. In addition, there are the problems of peat extraction and the drainage of landscapes for agriculture. The diverse forest conversion and the expansion of wetlands such as floodplains and moors must finally be given priority. Many nature reserves, national parks, natural regions and near-natural landscape protection areas should be expanded and connected, if possible for example with flower strips and wild meadows. Protected areas in nature and landscape protection should also be expanded and include urban regions and larger city parks or city forests. Special wilderness biotopes for a relatively free development of really ’natural nature’ should be made possible in the protected areas. Because nature is not the same as nature, at least according to the understanding of society and people.
Soil quality and healthier soils through more ecological forestry and sustainable agriculture, as well as better water management, are important to mitigate the negative consequences and effects of climate change. The already often mentioned building up of humus, cultivation of deep-rooting plants, soil improvement and green manure plants can contribute significantly to soil formation and improvement of the overall soil. Protective layers with ground cover and wildflower meadows can protect the soil in particularly hot and dry times. The principle applies, just let it grow and support nature in the development of biodiversity with natural seeds. Naturally with suitable species depending on the region and vegetation zone, i.e. suitable plants of / for mountainous areas, wetlands, grasslands, meadows and forests. To do this, one should think more about aquatic plants and then use them to improve water bodies. Because a large part of the rivers and lakes in Germany is in a precarious state, at least when it comes to the ecological aspect, neighboring agriculture, shipping and biodiversity. Without ecosystem services, human life on earth would not be possible. Worldwide, around 60% of the ecosystem services examined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are in a critical state; they are at great risk from environmental pollution and environmental damage.
We all have to help make whole landscapes more diverse and resistant to climate extremes, including urban regions and cities – for this purpose, among other things, the Urban Greening Camp project started. More urban greening, solar and water surfaces as well as lighter surfaces can cool down urban areas, so-called for near-natural recreation areas and biological diversity. Agriculture based on solidarity and community gardens are also good solutions that can bring more biodiversity and community profits.
Here are a few more suggestions for improvement.
Professional advice and recommendation to good addresses and contacts in the above areas for corresponding consideration is possible, for this you can simply contact the author of this article by email.
Greening Deserts analyses and research projects have been dealing with climate change and extreme weather conditions such as exceptional heat, drought and floods since 2016. Despite all the optimism, the prognosis for the coming years does not look rosy. It takes a lot of effort, motivation and support to be able to work and live normally throughout the crisis. Cohesion is more important than ever in these times, egoism and ignorance only make things worse. We need more solidarity and courage, whether through useful information, the exchange of experiences or other meaningful actions. Simply going out into the streets unfortunately does not bring as much as taking part in constructive actions and actively participating in constructive actions for species protection, climate protection, nature conservation and environmental protection. For example planting trees, watering urban trees and plants, sowing wildflowers and caring for parks and meadows. Leaving this to others like the green space authorities or city cleaning is not a solution. In some countries or regions the corona crisis can result in massive financial problems and financial crises. There will be a lack of funds and resources for many of important environmental tasks or work in future. We all need to hold together in relation to the health of us all and the environment. Healthy ecosystems are the basis for a healthy life.
The global economic crisis and COVID-19 recession (Great Lockdown) will occupy society and the economy for many years to come. In principle there are several crises, e.g. the education crisis, health crisis, cultural crisis and social crisis. Greening Deserts articles also deal with these topics, especially in relation to the effects, consequences and causes of climate change. Many potential solutions are offered, but most of them can only be solved together – some of the suggestions have already been implemented personally or privately. I hope that many will follow. Good additions, ideas and suggestions for improvement are of course always welcome. @ feedback.greeningdeserts.com. Your friend of nature, Oliver Gediminas Caplikas. The next article deals with climate change adaptation and urban greening on many levels, for example with vertical farming. Heat-resistant and drought-tolerant plant species as well as special climate change woody plants will play an important role. Some of the plants are even drought-resistant or have a high ‘drought resistance’.
Hemp paper becoming more and more popular as the eco-friendly alternative to wood-paper, reducing deforestation and saving a lot of trees. Many studies revealed that if the old paper industries switch to hemp paper, it could help the world to reduce global warming and bad climate change effects. The worldwide hemp cultivation can improve the climate, environment, soils and waters significantely.
Approx 93% of paper comes from trees, but this will change in near future, starting with hemp toilet paper production. First industries have understand the advantages and potentials of the fast growing hemp paper market, not just because of profits and sustainability. The time to change is now, you can be a part of it. Help saving trees, support climate and environmental protection. Use recycled toiled paper until hemp toilet paper will replace it. The use of hemp paper will improve sustainable living and responsible consumption, because hemp is not just a strong symbol for sustainabilty, the using of hemp has a long history with a lot of good experiences. Sad that so many humans and nations have forgotten and missed so much opportunities during the last decades. The Chinese were mostly responsible for the advancement in toilet paper since in the 14th century, the use of hemp is known since 20,000 years! It is time to use finally all the experiences of hemp production and innovative hemp products to improve the economy, society and whole life on planet Earth.Environmental impacts of paper production
Countless trees being used for toilet paper production, also in rainforest areas. This has a massive impact on these forests and negative consequences for the biodiversity, ecosystems, indigenous peoples and wildlife. The paper industry is partwise responsible for extinction of species and environmental pollution. For processing trees into toilet paper huge amounts of energy and water is needed. The number of people using toilet paper around the world has increased significantly. Toilet tissue accounts for 15 percent of deforestation, of one tree over a thousand rolls of toilet paper can be produced. The paper production requires a large amount of bleach, formaldehyde and organochlorines. Paper accounts for 25% of landfill waste and 33% of municipal waste. 40% or more of all trees are being cut down to make paper. Alone in the USA, approx 20% of all air toxics come from the production of paper pulp. A ton of conventional paper contaminates over 70,000 liters of water. Approx 50% of the waste of businesses is composed of paper. US offices use over 12 trillion sheets of paper a year. Every minute, Americans throw away approx 32,000 toilet paper tubes. Almost 270,000 trees are either flushed or dumped in landfills every day. Decomposing papers can produce methane gas, one main cause of global warming.
Trees contain only 30% cellulose, hemp has approx 80% cellulose content. Wood can contain 40-50% cellulose, 25-30% hemicellulose, 20-35% lignin, approx 5% resins and oils. It needs much energy and many toxic chemicals to seperate the cellulose from trees. Hemp has lower lignin content as wood. Hemp produces four times more cellulose fibers per hectare compared to trees and takes 4-5 months to grow, while trees take 8-100 years. Hemp plants for hemp paper production don’t need any pesticides to grow, these special plant varities need very little water and have the ability to balance out the nutrients in the soil. Hemp paper is more biodegradable and better to recycle as regular paper.
Industries, media and politics discussing about the paper wastes worldwide. Some presenting questionable arguments, for example that the electronic revolution and digitalisation will reduce the paper usage, but this is wrong. Demand for paper is expected to double before 2030. Others argue with the conflict with actual agriculture and used land areas, but this is not the main problem. Many unused areas can be used for hemp cultivation, so like wastelands. Degraded lands and depleted soils can be improved. Hemp plants are also good for catch crop cultivation (intercropping), they can improve following tree plantations.
Hemp toilet paper can reduce deforestation, climate change and global warming. Hemp paper in general can improve the climate, environment, soils and waters. Let’s save the world’s oxygen-releasing trees and forests who filtering the air, transforming toxins and cleaning parts of the water cycle.
More facts and further information about hemp paper and hemp toilet paper
Contains information and statistics from sources:
Hemp is even good for Chemical Cleaning and Soil Aeration. “Cleaning up nuclear disasters such as Chernobyl or the Fukushima Power Plant leaks require unique tactics. Hemp presents one such unique solution in how it can recover the soil in affected areas. The process, known as phytoremediation, uses live plants to clean up existing radiation. Due to hemp’s quick growth cycle and toxin resistance, it is a natural solution to these human-created problems. Some suggest that hemp could also be useful in cleaning up oil spills by absorbing cadmium. Speaking of hemp’s soil benefits.. Hemp features deep roots. These combined with the natural process of growing helps to aerate the soil with carbon dioxide deposits. Due to this feature, a new crop can be planted immediately after hemp harvest. There is no need to leave the ground fallow. Since hemp also grows in a variety of soil types and climates, this could have huge implications for farming on a global scale.” Read more:
Here are some more information about Greening Deserts projects like Greening Camps, Hemp Papers and the Trillion Trees Initiative. These projects can reduce negative climate changes, deforestation, droughts, desertification, land degradation and global warming significantely, especially in human-made deserts, drylands and wastelands. The camps are used for professional plant breeding, to reforest and to regreen large areas. The greening and research camps will be green spots to cultivate plants and trees are needed in each concerned region, for example ground cover, flower trees, wild grasses, wild flowers and medicinal plants. Together with hemp and other soil improving plants top soil layers will be created in just a few years – the basis for the following plantations and forests. It will support to establish a real sustainable agriculture and ecological forestry. Hemp will be a side product of the forestation or greening processes, it can be delivered to hemp product producers like the hemp paper branch and hemp wood industry. All would win at the end – the poor people or regions, the degraded lands or soils, the forestry, paper and wood industry – even big wood paper consumers like the book, newspaper and packaging industry. Hemp and rice straw paper books could reform the book and paper branch in many ways. If you want to know more about, don’t hesitate to contact. Greening Deserts want to found the official company fast as possible and continue the project developments for more Greening Camps in Europe and Africa. TrillionTrees.africa
Constructive feedback and support is always welcome.
The hemp plant is not only the most useful plant in the world, hemp is also a potential climate saver and can even significantly reduce global warming, climate crises and land degradation with appropriate applications. Greening Deserts projects such as the Greening Camps and research stations will use bamboo, hemp and other key plants extensively to improve soil quality and water quality. Various greenhouses and research fields can be established together with the camps for education, research and product development, the projects also serve the climate, nature and environmental protection. At each camp can be special biotopes, botanical gardens, greenhouses and parks for endangered species – especially for cultivating or saving plants, insects and other animals of each climate zone or region.
The groundwater, global waters and water circle can be improved by sustainable hemp cultivation, ecological agriculture, organic farming and innovative water management. Only natural fertilizers will be used and pesticides are avoided, there are many good alternatives. Different bamboo and hemp sorts can be used in almost every climate and under all possible conditions or events. Global hemp cultivation can really contribute to climate, soil and water improvement as well as for a better cultivation of crops and a variety of afforestation or reforestation. The founder and project developer of Greening Camp projects has been developing these innovative and sustainable solutions for years. Climate protection, nature conservation, species protection and plant science are a few of the primary tasks.
Since the Greening Deserts Masterplan in 2017 many of the innovative ideas, developments and solutions have been presented and realized – not only in relation to open-cast mines, open-pit mines and surface mining. Through connected projects, most developments and ideas have been established internationally, even if only conceptually or theoretically. Many of the developments or products can be realized with hemp, e.g. hemp books, papers, nets, tarpaulins, ropes, textiles, packaging materials and other hemp products. Hemp fibers have been used for many centuries in fishery and shipping because of their flexibility, tear resistance and resilience. Nowadays, there are well over 50,000 industrial hemp applications, but far too few are really used. That is why many of the most useful applications are analyzed with the greening and research camps and applied accordingly. Hemp paper, hemp wood and hemp plastic are interesting products, so like the ingredients CBD, THC, etc. – not just for science. Industrial hemp can be used for hemp paper and hemp packaging, saving more trees and forests and reducing global deforestation. It could even reduce the plastic waste, especially the plastic bags. In this relation is the hemp cultivation not just interesting for developing countries with soil and water problems like in Africa, it also has enourmous potential for European countries and whole Europe who missed many of these developments.
More information about hemp plants and hemp paper:
For about 12,000 years people have been using the raw material. Hemp paper was invented in China over 2,000 years ago and reached Europe in the 13th century. For 500 years it was the most widely used raw material in papermaking. Hemp books such as the Gutenberg Bible and other well-known works were printed on hemp papers. Hemp paper is much more stable and durable than wood paper. Hemp paper books last much longer and do not turn yellow fast. Hemp fibers are naturally lighter than wood fibers. Hemp is therefore better suited for paper production than wood.
The cannabis or hemp plant produces several times higher yields than trees in terms of cultivated area and growing time. One hectare of hemp field can replace about 120 hectares of trees. Sustainability, the forest conservation or preservation of the forests, as well as the improvement of the soils, are further advantages of hemp production. In principle, almost all varieties can be used for hemp cultivation. Particularly suitable for hemp fiber production is high-growth industrial hemp. Depending on the variety, hemp plants can grow several meters in just three to four months. Hemp leaves an optimal field or soil for subsequent plants. According to farmers and hemp farmers, a wheat or potato field can produce up to 20% more yield in the following year. The hemp plant is therefore a perfect catch crop and is also very well suited as a bio fertilizer. In some regions even two harvests per year are possible. Hemp is the ideal plant for ecological and organic farming or sustainable agriculture. In Germany, hemp is not allowed to grow for everyone. The cultivation of hemp is just allowed with certain permits and only for certain agricultural companies. All other companies in agriculture are not allowed to grow hemp, not even private or forestry organisations. This clearly contradicts the positive qualities and benefits for the environment, nature, medicine and society.
Further ecological and economic advantages of the raw material hemp:
Hemp is very undemanding and grows on almost any soil, the root system loosens up the soil.
Hemp plants are very resistant to fungal attacks.
Hemp cultivation creates a slightly wetter climate, hemp fields support biodiversity, especially with respect to insects. The pollen of the male hemp plant is interesting for bees or wild bees.
Hemp plants suppress weeds and improve the soil climate.
Hemp can clean up poisoned soils, sometimes even from some heavy metals.
The hemp blossom has many valuable ingredients.
The hemp plant can be fully utilized, including the foliage, flowers, seeds and stems. There are thousands of applications and products, e.g. hemp tea, hemp oil, hemp paper, hemp textiles or hemp fabrics.
Hemp fibers are very resistant and therefore usable in many areas.
Hemp fibers are among the most stable natural fibers in the world.
Hemp paper can be recycled more often than wood paper, almost every type of paper and cardboard can be made from hemp.
Hemp books, magazines and newspapers are the future!
More information you can find on the Hemp Papers project pages.
Please care the soil not just on the World Soil Day on 5th December, care it everyday like your fresh water. If we care more about our soils we care more about ourselfs, our planet Earth and the humanity. The Latin name for man, humans or homo, derived from humus.
About a third of the world’s soil has already been degraded. Soils are the basis of life, ninety five percent of our food comes from the soil. – Maria-Helena Semedo
A nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air and giving fresh strength to our people. – Franklin D. Roosevelt
A tree’s most important means of staying connected to other trees is a “wood wide web” of soil fungi that connects vegetation in an intimate network that allows the sharing of an enormous amount of information and goods. – Tim Flannery
Collaboration has no hierarchy. The Sun collaborates with soil to bring flowers on the earth. – Amit Ray
Civilization has its roots in the soil. Each soil has had its own history. Like a river, a mountain, a forest, or any natural thing, its present condition is due to the influences of many things and events of the past. – Charles Kellogg
The Earth and soil is the basis of all life, even on the deep undergrounds of the oceans. The deforestation, land degradation and the pollution of air, water and soils by humans is responsible for many climate changes, human-made global warming and even a mass extinction in only 100 years! If humanity will fail to save and protect the most important species, the endangered and keystone species, the human species will also die out – maybe also in just 100 years. – Gediminas Caplikas
History is largely a record of human struggle to wrest the land from nature, because man relies for sustenance on the products of the soil. So direct, is the relationship between soil erosion, the productivity of the land, and the prosperity of people, that the history of mankind, to a considerable degree at least, may be interpreted in terms of the soil and what has happened to it as the result of human use. – Hugh Hammond Bennett
If we pollute the air, water and soil that keep us alive and well, and destroy the biodiversity that allows natural systems to function, no amount of money will save us. – David Suzuki
I saw all the people hustling early in the morning to go into the factories and the stores and the office buildings, to do their job, to get their check. But ultimately it’s not office buildings or jobs that give us our checks. It’s the soil. The soil is what gives us the real income that supports us all. – Ed Begley, Jr.
It helps to think of soil as a living organism covered with skin like a human. We can live with a certain percentage of our skin damaged, but if too high a percentage is damaged, we die. So, too, does soil and thus most life. – Allan Savory
People in cities may forget the soil for as long as a hundred years, but Mother Nature’s memory is long and she will not let them forget indefinitely. – Henry A. Wallace
Soil is not usually lost in slabs or heaps of magnificent tonnage. It is lost a little at a time over millions of acres by the careless acts of millions of people. It cannot be saved by heroic feats of gigantic technology, but only by millions of small acts and restraints, conditioned by small fidelities, skills, and desires. Soil loss is ultimately a cultural problem; it will be corrected only by cultural solutions. – Wendell Berry
Soil organic matter sustains agriculture, which sustains civilization. Soil organic matter generates and regulates every ecosystem service that sustains life on earth. Topsoil loss in excess of topsoil formation has been the defining characteristic of agriculture. The rapid formation of carbon-rich topsoil is the greatest priority and opportunity of our time. If you harvest a crop you are removing nutrients from that ecosystem – for sustainable production they need to be replaced.
Standing on soil feels so much different than standing on city pavement; it lets you look inward and reflect and see who you really are, while you see a beautiful, unspoiled land as far as the eye can see. It allows your inner life to grow. – Ricardo Montalban
The only truly dependable production technologies are those that are sustainable over the long term. By that very definition, they must avoid erosion, pollution, environmental degradation, and resource waste. Any rational food-production system will emphasize the well-being of the soil-air-water biosphere, the creatures which inhabit it, and the human beings who depend upon it. – Eliot Coleman
The fate of the soil system depends on society’s willingness to intervene in the market place, and to forego some of the short-term benefits that accrue from ‘mining’ the soil so that soil quality and fertility can be maintained over the longer term. – Eugene Odum
The soil is the great connector of lives, the source and destination of all. It is the healer and restorer and resurrector, by which disease passes into health, age into youth, death into life. Without proper care for it we can have no community, because without proper care for it we can have no life. – Wendell Berry
Understanding is the soil in which grow all the fruits of friendship. – Woodrow Wilson
We must come to understand our past, our history, in terms of the soil and water and forests and grasses that have made it what it is. – William Vogt
Greening Deserts Sustainable Projects Summary:
Greening Deserts projects are cultural, economic, educational, scientific, social and sustainable projects in the field of horticulture, hydroponics, sustainable agriculture and ecological forestry – but also in the fields of clean technology, green technologies and renewable energy such as solar, water and wind energy. Electricity access, availability and reliability together with energy efficiency will be optimized at the greening and research camps. The focus is on education, sustainable developments and scientific research. Conservation, environmental protection and species protection plays a very important role, too. Main goals of the projects are to reduce deforestation, desertification, pollution and global warming on a large scale. Goals are also to improve the energy and food security, to offer innovative management, ecosystem and greening services. The projects will reform the agriculture and forestry with Ecofarming, Ecoforestry and Permaculture methods, technics and techniques. The projects can include each region and nation in the process, especially in relation to Cleantech, Greentech, environmental protection, a real Sustainable Infrastructure and Sustainable Investments – Green Finance and Sustainable Finance. The worldwide cleaning and greening process can accelerate the global peace building process siginificantly.
More articles and news will come! Feel free to comment and to add interesting quotes to the topics.
We are proud to announce two new Greening Camp projects. ☀💚☀
Greening Camp Egypt and Greening Camp Rwanda project development started with some awesome people from Africa. We will present the development teams this year. The goal is to finish the first stage during the summer. We will develop, promote and support education, climate, environmental awareness, healthy and sustainable living and working solutions. Together with the Billion Trees Campaigns and Tillion Trees Initiative we will reforest and revegetate man-made deserts, especially drylands and wastelands in Africa. Natural Habitats, Game Reserves, WildLife Reserves and Environmental Protection plays a very important role at Greening Deserts projects.
We will create healthy environments like natural gardens, parks and forests together with each involved region. Goals are also to restore natural landscapes like mixed forests, grasslands and wetlands – to bring back diversity, clean air and water. The Energy Storage Park for each bigger greening and research camp will guarantee clean energy supply and energy security.
Greening Camp Egypt project development started and we will present the development team until summer. We want to start with first building and joint development work until late summer. With support by the African community and African Union (AU) we can build the camp maybe even faster. The focus is on research, cleantech, renewable energy, greentech, greenhouse and water management, sustainable farming, greening and ecological forestry. Conservation, environmental protection, preservation of diversity and wildlife plays a very important role, too. We will support building new habitats and game reserves. Afforestation.org
The main goals and tasks of the project are the education and integration of the region around the camp in the conservation and greening process. We want to offer exhibitions, excursions, guided tours, training courses and seminars. Providing information about environment, culture, history, landscapes, nature, society, clean and green technologies. #Afforestation, #Camp, #Conservation, #Diversity, #CleanTech, #EcoFarming, #EcoForestry, #Egypt, #GreenTech, #SciencePark, #TrillionTrees
Informed hundreds of ambassadors, ministers, trade commissioners, scientists and experts to join Greening Deserts campaigns, initiatives and projects – especially the Billion Trees Project and the Trillion Trees Initiative! All nations are welcome to support us. International partners, institutions, sponsors and investors are welcome to join us in this early stage. @Greening Camps, Greening Coasts, Greening Drones, Greenhouse Ship, Green Ring Africa, Great Green Wall North Africa 💚💚💚💚💚
Invest in true values like education, health, humanity, nature and sustainability.
Greening Deserts are economical, educational, cultural, social, scientific and sustainable projects to reduce desertification and global warming, to improve healthy environments, agriculture and forestry. Also for urban areas, city forests and gardens – especially community and rooftop gardens. They are good to cool down urban areas and filter the air. @Urban Greening, Rooftop Greening, Community Gardening and City Farming (City Nursery)!
We can start primarly in the countries where we get the best, fastest and most support, also financially. The goal is to establish Research and Greening Camps for drylands and wastelands, especially in African and Arabic nations. We want to connect them during the years and bring the nations together, also by connected megaprojects like the third Great Green Wall Project, the Green Ring Africa Platform (coastal greening), the Greenhouse Ship and Greening Coasts project. At the Frankfurt Book Fair and during the years we exchanged and talked a lot with many awesome people around the world. Exchanged and invited many ambassadors, ministers, trade commissioners, scientists and experts to join our campaigns, initiatives and projects – especially the 100 Billion Trees project and the Trillion Trees Campaign! If each nation would plant a billion trees minimum during the next years we maybe can cool down the planet and really reach some of the climate goals.
Healthy and natural environments are the best for health! That’s why Greening Deserts projects want to create and restore healthy environments worldwide. By the way, trees and many plants produce not just fresh air and water, they provide food and are the best medicine or health therapy. Clean air, water and a healthy environment are Human Rights!
To support the greening and forestation process, we want to develop seeding and greening drones, for larger areas we can use solar planes. It’s one of the first projects we will start at the first Greening Camp next year. The drones are mainly for greening drylands and wastelands fast and efficient, they are also good to improve the diversity of existing areas and forests. To reduce paper and wood waste we not just recommend recycled papers and produce on demand technologies, we started two projects to save the forests, too. Hemp Papers and Hemp Houses was founded during the last year. We will produce a lot of hemp during the greening process and can deliver a lot of raw materials for innovative paper, carton packaging and building products (like hemp bricks, press plates and OSB-boards). Because hemp is one of our key plants for the greening projects, so we can offer this resource for hemp product producers, the book, paper, packaging and building industry. Investors and strong future partners are welcome to join us in the early stage with green finance and seed capital.
You can download the article: Greening Deserts Sustainable Investment in CleanTech GreenTech Education and GreenFinance
Drought and heat are also a problem for the farmers. European farms expect harvest losses of 30 to 50 percent compared to the previous year. In parts of Germany, the soil is as dry as it has been for 50 years. Extreme drought, thunderstorms and floods often occur together and can severely affect affected countries. These extreme weather conditions are increasing not just in Africa but also in Europe, particularly hit countries such as Greece, Spain and Italy, where massive forest fires and the resulting desertification increases extremely. This year, even European countries such as Germany and Poland are affected, where some regions even introduced emergency harvesting and water restrictions after the second drought. In some regions, rivers and lakes dry up, even the groundwater and drinking water is scarce. Greening Deserts has been reporting extensively on these topics for years, especially in terms of soil degradation and desertification. Large opencast mining areas (surface mining deserts), cities (concrete deserts) and urban regions also contribute to this extreme climate. Many of these consequences of man-made climate change are not exactly predictable, but can be estimated very well with today’s scientific findings in climate research. We discussed with many climate researchers, nature and environmentalists and exchanged about this problem.
Other topics such as the reform of agriculture, soil improvement and water improvement have been and will be discussed in detail. Unfortunately, we have not received any active and financial support from the responsible authorities since years. For a long time we could do research on more effective cultivation and irrigation methods with a first greening and research camp in the surface mining landscape of Leipzig (Lakeland Neuseenland) – if our inquiries and demands had been taken seriously, especially by the big parties who were informed several times. Our demands and requests for help to German foundations, especially in the field of education, nature and environmental protection were ignored or there were the usual excuses.
We hope for quick help or support, so that we can work together with all involved parties to make the coal exit and transformation of the energy industry and agriculture to clean energy and technologies (cleantech) fast and efficient. We want to cultivate bamboo, hemp and palm trees on a large scale in opencast mining areas – not just because of the benefits in these areas, but also because of new innovative developments and compensatory measures in relation to global warming. In addition, special desert plants, extremely resistant, robust and undemanding plants are explored, such as rock garden plants and desert bamboo. Thus, many useful plants for improving the quality of soil, air and water can be used not only on land, but also in urban areas and large cities. Of course we will run a diverse agriculture and gardening – this is also called ecofarming. Wild blooms and flowerbeds counteract massive bee and insect deaths or in general the massive extinction of species. As you can see Greening Deserts is not only concerned with deserts and desertification but with many other important tasks and topics. If this is not eligible .. an extensive consultation and accompaniment to appropriate funding would be really appropriate.
Visit our social and scientific pages and groups for more information. You’re welcome to discuss and to exchange with us about all these topics!
We are proud to announce a new project and initiative for Greening Deserts projects like Greening Coasts and Greening Islands. The world’s first greenhouse ship, container ship and solar ship together in one big transport ship can deliver and transport greenhouses and equipment for professional gardening, greening, farming, forestation and other fields like solar applications or solar installations directly to areas where it’s needed. It’s a logistical and infrastructure innovation, because the ship can ship along the coastlines between the big habours of the world – you don’t must drive hundred or even thousands of kilometers from the habours to the destinations. With solar boats, drones, landing crafts and solar trucks the needed goods can delivered directly to the customers on the shortest ways, also deep into the continents. Boat landing stages are not necessary because landing crafts and small transport boats can ship directly to the coasts with fortified areas and roads nearby.
Sustainable shipping with greening ships and solar ships will change the world into a better, cleaner and greener place. Greenhouse Ships, container ships and Solar Ships could have mobile units or sections inside and outside. So you can move and exchange containers like in automated parking systems. This allows to load and unload the ship at any place of coastlines. Solar modules can be folded out and affixed with clever clip connections on the top or sides of the containers and on other free places or surfaces. A mobile floating solar field can be spread out on the water to charge the solar accumulators. Desalination of sea water is no longer a problem these days, so the greenhouse section (fixed or mobile greenhouse containers) will have fresh water and service water.
On the official Greenhouse Ship and Solar Ships page we will report about the project development in future and also about interesting developments related to greenhouse boats and ships. Greenhouse Ship™ was founded and initiated by Oliver Gediminas Caplikas from Leipzig. http://www.greenhouseship.com
About Greening Deserts:
Greening Deserts are economical, educational, cultural, social, scientific and sustainable projects to reduce desertification and global warming.
Further tasks and goals of the projects are the education, research and realization of a sustainable greening, management and cultivation of all kinds of poor, barren and dry areas, landscapes (drylands) or regions. That’s why the main projects of Greening Deserts treating not only typical deserts but all types of deserts, including surface mining deserts, concrete- or urban-deserts. This can all be done with suitable greening and research camps, stations or centers.
Desert research, research and development of sustainable greening methods, greenhouse management, forestry, agriculture and cultural industries are the primary fields of the concept and greening deserts projects. The greening and research camp with a greenhouse, office and laboratory containers or tents for the research and development of greening and irrigation methods is the primary objective for opencast mine or post-mining landscapes. Secondary objectives, such as sustainable recreational use and tourism offers, can be realized while the operation during the years.
Greening Deserts has already applied for some idea, startup and business competitions, e.g. for the Hamburg Innovation Award, but to date no answer or any feedback.
Today is a very special day. Greening Deserts is proud to announce the first palm nursery and tree nursery, for important and rare endangered plants, in Leipzig. We will plant and research also other crops for advanced plant biology, usefull essences, medical substances, biomass and material science.
LE PALMS (Leipzig Palms), the official palm platform, portal, forum and group for palms was founded last year. The page and shop is ready and in progress. We want to open the first palm café, lounge and palm shop in Leipzig, Saxony. In relation to the greening and research camp in the area of Leipzig we can use a greenhouse and part of the camp for the palm cultivation. Since years we have the idea to launch an extra palm garden and palm shop with café directly in Leipzig. (Palm Café Leipzig).
LE Palms is a new platform and portal for palms, especially for Africa, Europe and Middle East. We want to establish primarly world famous and usefull palms in Europe. Building palm gardens, parks, woods and forests together with European palm societies. Everyone is invited to join our palm tree, greening and plant community. Stay tuned for more news and updates. Visit the official pages for more information. http://www.lepalms.eu
Greening Deserts are economical, educational, cultural, social, scientific and sustainable projects to reduce desertification and global warming on a large scale. And Greening Deserts projects arn’t just for deserts or dry landscapes (drylands or wastelands), they are also good for urban regions. Greening camps in cities could build gardens, parks, woods and forests in urban areas (Urban Greening). The projects could have a very positive and big impact on many important sectors. With the right financial support, sustainable fundings or investments the projects could be realised fast and efficient.
The new Master Plan, Business Plan and Financial Plan for the Greening Deserts projects is ready after months of work. A first draft of the master plan and financial plan (budget) was pre-released in October, the complete business plan in December 2017. Both current versions in German can be downloaded here or in the download area. The professional translation into English was not possible due to other important work or projects, also because special variants of the business plan for Germany and a startup competition of start2grow were made and sent there. In the next few days, a general public version of the business plan will be put online.
Here is a short excerpt:
The first greening camp (pilot project) is planned for the opencast mining area in the Leipzig region (Lakeland) in Saxony. Preferred land or terrain are located at the Cospudener-, Markkleeberger- and Zwenkauer See. However, the project can also be realized in other opencast mining regions. Alternative locations can also be found outside of open-pit landscapes. Terrains at waters, such as rivers, lakes and seas are always prefered. Dune, coastal, field and desert research are primary fields of science. Equally important is the research and development of sustainable greening methods, greenhouse management, forestry, agriculture and cultural economy in conjunction with the sciences.
The first greening and research camp with greenhouse, office and laboratory container(s) or tents should be a central meeting place and research station for all the topics and areas mentioned. Interesting insights and developments are shared with institutions and partners and published when needed. With interested and competent persons, organisations or bodies will be communicated during the project.
Communication, exchange of experience and knowledge as well as good management of innovation and knowledge are important areas for the future. The Change-, Compliance-, Decision-Making-, Risk- and Project Management plays also an important role (partly also in the initial phase). The management instruments and the organizational structure will be adjusted accordingly. With sufficient financial resources, a financial manager (alternatively CFO) and project manager will be hired as soon as possible. The tasks of the CEO as well as CTO can be taken by the founder of Greening Deserts. Extensive information is available especially in the areas of development, management, risk analysis and finance. In order to mitigate or prevent most risks from the outset, the best possible risk spreading will be established. For particularly important areas there are alternative solutions and plans.
For the company it is important to create a balanced working environment and working methods. A positive working environment, a pleasant atmosphere and relaxed interaction are fundamental principles. It is planned to work sustainable and forward-looking or proactive manner. This corporate culture should also be carried out to the world.
With serious interest in cooperations or partnerships and after concluded cooperation agreement (alternatively CDA and LoI) the current business plan, financial plan and many interesting annexes can be sent also in English. The general concept (master plans) and the business plan are constantly being developed. The internal version will not be published or otherwise published and only will be made available to future partners if there is genuine interest in collaborations or meaningful cooperations. It is a living business and master plan that is constantly expanding, improving, simplifying and evolving.
The projects can start also in countries that invest first in a big Greening Deserts camp. The time to invest is now! Help us to reduce global warming and negative human-made climate changes on a global scale.
Here is a shortened version, the first pages of the German Business Plan.
The second Greening Deserts Master Plan for desert areas such as open-pit deserts is ready and of course in continuous development.
The business plan, concept and study on sustainable greening methods, greenhouse management, forestry, agriculture and cultural economy for opencast mine and post-mining landscapes can also be adapted as needed or revised for any situation.
In the following a few special Unique Selling Propositions (USPs) and innovative ideas are briefly summarized.
Most work, services or services can be realized with sufficient resources and resources with a few helpers. With money, financial resources or support it is no problem to build fast a good time. The services are chargeable, but in some exceptions such as investments, joint ventures, sponsorships or similar collaborations may be free or mutually beneficial. Various constellations, partnerships and synergy effects are possible. Further information can be found in the Masterplan 2 and partner, investor or sponsoring concept.
Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving. – Albert Einstein
Faith moves mountains, intelligence goes over them, wisdom goes around them, but love levels them. – Matshona Dhliwayo
You don’t climb mountains without a team, you don’t climb mountains without being fit, you don’t climb mountains without being prepared and you don’t climb mountains without balancing the risks and rewards. And you never climb a mountain on accident – it has to be intentional. – Mark Udall
Doubt makes the mountain that faith can shift. – German proverb
Faith can move mountains. Doubt can create them.
Excerpt of the Business Plan and Master Plan 2 in german language: Greening and Research Camps for Surface Mining Deserts: Concept and Study on Sustainable Greening Methods, Greenhouse Management, Forestry, Agriculture and Culture Industry for Surface Mining and Post-Mining Landscapes. – This is a pre-release published on 31 October 2017, Reformation Day in Germany.
Desert research, research and development of sustainable greening methods, greenhouse management, forestry, agriculture and cultural industries are the primary fields of the concept and greening deserts projects. The greening and research camp with a greenhouse, office or laboratory containers or tents for the research and development of greening and irrigation methods is the primary objective for open pit mines. Secondary objectives, such as sustainable recreational use and tourism offers, can be realized during the operation over the years and are not necessary for the successful start of the research project and base camp in the opencast mining area or a post-mining landscape. This also eliminates all associated conditions, provisions and legal regulations, since for the time being no public recreational use or tourism operation takes place. Nevertheless, forward-looking considerations and planning approaches as well as extensive points on the areas or topics were worked out and summarized in this concept. Greening Deserts projects are always planned as long-term and sustainable as possible.
Further tasks and goals of the projects are the education, research and realization of a sustainable greening, management and cultivation of all kinds of poor, barren and dry areas, landscapes (drylands) or regions. That’s why the main project u.a. Greening Deserts, which treats not only typical deserts but all types of deserts, including open-pit deserts, concrete or urban deserts. This can all be done with suitable greening and research camps, wards and centers. In this work and in the concept possibilities and ways of doing so are analyzed and discussed on the example of research and greening camps for opencast deserts, mining landscapes or post-mining landscape landscapes. The research camp should be an encounter, education and communication platform in post-mining landscapes, internally for experts, experts and scientists, and in future also publicly for all possible visitors.
For a start, the greening, nature and research projects focus on nature experiences, important experience and research in the particular area or terrain. Everything is analyzed, documented and informed about interesting findings and developments. In the course of the project, interested and competent bodies or persons will be communicated – via existing and new networks, and then on site as well. In addition to well-known environmental education instruments and programs, the active experience of nature and creative forms of exploration and experimentation should also be researched and developed. Particular attention is paid to the practice-oriented work, if possible outdoors. The motto is: away from unhealthy, artificial working and living spaces. Out of sterile offices or laboratories. Out of the house or city, work and live in healthy habitats, in a positive environments of true and true nature or natural environment.
Extensive research results, discoveries, developments and experiences in all mentioned areas of projects can be exchanged and compared with international institutions and scientific institutions. Most of the information and results are publicly or online available and will be published according to their level of development or needs. This will further enhance development and processes and can really help problem areas and poor countries (Third World / Emerging Countries). The research results, experiences and insights form a cornerstone for space gardening or space research in relation to professional greenhouse management, even for desert planets such as Mars. Also interesting would be a Mars Research Station for surface mining or post-mining landscapes. For this reason, with sufficient financial support or funding, further developments and research should be carried out, such as hydroponics, such as aquaponics or hydroponics, solar greenhouses and special biospheres.
During the first years additional places, paths and paths for recreational activities or recreational activities such as hiking and cycling can be planned and set up. For this purpose, with sufficient resources extra vantage points, experience rooms, rest areas, shelters, actuation and art objects can be realized. This is very good due to a strong presence and good contacts.. Further information (texts, pictures, lists, tables, etc.) in the concept or appendix. This concept, scientific study, market analysis and master plan was writen by Oliver Gediminas Caplikas.